The Guest Editors have assembled top key opinion leaders to provide current reviews on the multidisciplinary approach to the management of high-grade bladder cancer. Articles are devoted to fluorescence cystoscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy, narrow band imaging; Novel therapeutic approaches for recurrent nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer; Trimodality therapy in bladder cancer; the data and the reality of perioperative chemotherapy in muscle invasive bladder cancer; radical transurethral resection alone, robotic or partial cystectomy or extended lymphadenectomy: Neoadjuvant paradigm for drug development in muscle invasive bladder cancer; Novel biomarkers to predict response and prognosis in localized bladder cancer; Immunotherapy in Advanced/Metastatic Urothelial Cancer; and Adjuvant Chemotherapy in High Grade Upper Tract Urothelial Cancer.
Agent-based modelling on a computer appears to have a special role to play in the development of social science. It offers a means of discovering general and applicable social theory, and grounding it in precise assumptions and derivations, whilst addressing those elements of individual cognition that are central to human society. However, there are important questions to be asked and difficulties to overcome in achieving this potential. What differentiates agent-based modelling from traditional computer modelling? Which model types should be used under which circumstances? If it is appropriate to use a complex model, how can it be validated? Is social simulation research to adopt a realist epistemology, or can it operate within a social constructionist framework? What are the sociological concepts of norms and norm processing that could either be used for planned implementation or for identifying equivalents of social norms among co-operative agents? Can sustainability be achieved more easily in a hierarchical agent society than in a society of isolated agents? What examples are there of hybrid forms of interaction between humans and artificial agents? These are some of the sociological questions that are addressed.
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